Turkey is printing new nationally-oriented textbooks within the new alphabet for free (although some faculties nonetheless ready use the thirty-year-old Soviet textbooks venerating Lenin). There are kindergartens and elementary faculties, and an eighth grade education is mandatory. Seventy-seven percent of colleges educate in Türkmen, and 16 p.c in Russian.
Social media users who post important feedback in regards to the government are topic to intimidation and imprisonment. Decisions on financial policy, massive-scale contracts with overseas companies, and the allocation of state earnings from hydrocarbon exports are largely opaque and finally controlled by the president, without effective legal limits or impartial oversight. Government officials and state-owned companies are not required to reveal their basic financial info to the public. The authoritarian political system offers voters no significant options to the ruling celebration. At a casual stage, politics throughout the regime are thought to be influenced by regional patronage networks, or “clans,” that management different components of the state and economic system. In October, the president issued a decree to start raising water charges as a part of a broader plan to phase out subsidies for primary utilities and ease pressure on the state price range amid a faltering economic system.
The authorities of Turkmenistan didn’t reply to a number of efforts to rearrange interviews or alternatives for comment. His successor, Gurbanguly Berdymukhammedov, a dentist and former senior well being official, has broken the silence. “There was a problem, and then I wrote the Rukhnama and folks learn it and it solved the issue,” he said, in accordance with a diplomat who was current.
Religious leaders are called mollas, or işan within the mystical Sufi orders, and käzys interpret Islamic regulation however do not act as clergy. Teachers have been hit especially hard by the dramatic economic shift since independence. Many are pressured to complement their incomes with non-public tutorials and still make very low salaries. Despite political and social change, and poor pay, teachers are still held in very excessive esteem.
Türkmen is gaining academic prominence, and the position of English has expanded. Adults examine Türkmen in free workplace lessons, and plenty of take personal lessons to study English.
There is a new and surprising trend amongst Türkmen women in city centers who really feel compelled to have youngsters however wouldn’t have a husband; they can’t find a man that they suppose would make a great husband and prefer to be without one. ATürkmen marriage ceremony is a festive event characterized by historic Turkic rituals. There is an trade of value known as galyñ , which regardless of its name, doesn’t imply that a bride is bought; it is a historic, complex strategy to redistribution of wealth in the traditional communities and is an honored custom even today. The Soviet authorities established a civil system and discouraged Islamic rites, however they persisted.
In the south, close to Tejen, lies the Badkhyz Nature Reserve with its pistachio woodlands. Pistachios also develop within the Serhetabat district, watered by a tributary of the Morghāb River, at Turkmenistan’s southernmost level. As such, Turkmen is extra closely related to Turkish than it turkmen brides is to either Uzbek or Kazakh. Russian is the first language of almost one-eighth of the population and is broadly spoken as a second language, however its use has declined considerably since independence.
The final impartial Türkmen leader was a woman, Güljamal Hatun, who succeeded her husband Nurberdi Han. There is an unofficial group in Aşgabat that helps battered women, and efforts are made to look after orphans and the mentally and bodily disabled. There is nationwide conscription to staff a small military pressure that’s suffering from corruption and disorganization. The authorities does not limit freedom of journey, but the southern border zones and a few areas of high security require a permit for visitation and are off limits to foreigners. Executive energy is exercised by a President who can also be chairman of the cupboard of ministers.
Rates of H.I.V. infection, unacknowledged formally, are feared to be spreading, and the federal government, rich with hydrocarbon wealth, has barely reacted. The problems are so pervasive, one Western diplomat said, that almost everyone is affected. From the clubs in the capital to the impoverished ranks of its state workers and the inmates in prisons, heroin use has permeated post-Soviet Turkmen society, creating largely unrecognized public health issues that the nation has accomplished little to deal with. In much less-populated western Turkmenistan, people elevate sheep, goats, and camels and domesticate some grain and melons.
Security forces routinely use torture to extract confessions or punish inmates. The lack of transparency surrounding many detentions quantities to enforced disappearance.
President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov received reelection in February with ninety seven.69 p.c of the vote, in accordance with official outcomes. He confronted eight token challengers who were supportive of his policy agenda. Türkmen perform burial ceremonies based on Islamic legislation and did so even underneath communism. Women do not attend funerals, however do take part within the commemoratory feasts held at seven days, forty days, and one yr after a death. Türkmen favor to make use of the term «to move on» ( aradan çykmak ), quite than «to die» ( ölmek ).
All establishments endure from lack of monetary safety, dilapidated buildings, lack of textbooks and undertrained teachers. Some overseas consultants are lending aid and recommendation, though progress, particularly in the rural areas, is gradual.
Prison conditions are extremely harsh, and the deaths in custody of several disappeared detainees and prisoners convicted on non secular extremism costs had been reported throughout 2017. Workers have a legal proper to affix commerce unions, however there are not any protections towards antiunion discrimination, and strikes are prohibited. The government-managed Association of Trade Unions of Turkmenistan is the only union organization permitted to function. One of the president’s sisters controls the National Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan and has been accused of using the organization for personal enrichment. Private dialogue and the expression of private views are extremely restricted because of intrusive supervision by state security providers, including physical surveillance, monitoring of telephone and electronic communications, and the usage of informers.